Living Rock: An Introduction to Earth’s Geology


it planet Earth is a living planet even solid rock and moving as it seems
as an exciting life of its own home but rocks live in geologic time their
lives spend billions of years we humans can
barely glimpsed the living Earth inactions 724 Victor 430 W box yeah I can you give me an old
faithful prediction please ok copy thank you itself 120 we’re geological wonders through a
landscape the power the birth is most intense you’re drawn to these places would make them the centerpieces of our
world’s great parks here on deep connection with planet
Earth is restoring the rocks we live on make up the birds
uppermost layer its continental crust the in recent
years scientists have been new insight into the nature of these
rocks this is their story it is a new story to us but it is really
is ancient as the earth itself I’ll the continental crust is the part of the
earth we walk on it is so familiar that we often take for granted there’s crust is intimately linked to the sustainability of all human life
it’s from the earth’s crust that we get the mineral resources that we depend
upon swells oil resources our water supply is
linked to the earth’s crust the minerals that plants require two to
grow and to feed on on come from the earth’s crust and so
our ecosystems and all are living matter is dependent on your
scratched but be worth did not always have a hard
crust on the planet first formed about four and a half billion years ago its surface was a Morton see you fire
the earth formed as part of the Big Bang the big explosion resulted in the
formation of our solar system mass was strewn out all through space
began to accumulate together and probably the initial or was a pretty
hot pretty inhospitable place and probably initially fairly homogeneous
just think it is a very hot material
eventually started to cool down and probably in powders gone are layer cool air for it wasn’t until some form a
plate tectonics began that we probably begin to build continental crust to get Canada across summit this down began to break often
fall down into the Potter in site interior partier that
probably began to mail as it melted the melt that
came off was slightly different kinda rock it was probably
lighter loaded up to this down to the existing
crust and born volcanoes but volcanic lava hardened to rock forming the first continental crust good it is now 35 miles thick in places the
continental crust is much thicker than the crushed under the ocean which is less than nine miles that overall the crust is just a thin film on
the planet making up only one percent of the
Earth’s total side below the crust is the mental which is
made up denser harder rock that the center of the earth
is the core a spear a buyer that is half the total
size at the plan I’ll a real good way to think about the
earth’s crust I think a real good analogy is dis think about in a and if you think
about the shell in the eighties very thin and their relationship to the
size of the egg and inside the egg there’s a clear white the eight you can
think about that in a sense like the Earth’s mantle the second layer down and in the middle
of the a guess is the ok and that’s a lot like the your
score because that’s about half the size of the acres in the open in our her score takes about half the
size but the earth’s crust is where we live in is that outermost shell and that we derive all that we need for life and to make
life livable civilizations have been built with
resources from the earth’s crust knowledge about the nature of the Cross
has been the Keystone today scientists are probing ever deeper
into the mysteries over this is the Katy B drill site in Bavaria
Germany using the largest onshore drill rig in
the world scientists and engineers have drill
30,000 feet into the earth’s crust it is the second deepest research drill
hole in the world after one that measures 40,000 feet in
russia wanna these rock chords come from depp’s
have several miles below the surface swim KTB scientists have begun to
analyze them with the most advanced methods ROC analysis but they come from a very special part
of the earth’s crust here we on old crust in very old contender crust where
usually only drool very shallow holes for what element
early posits and in this old cross lies the key to the
understanding of the evolution of the yours the oceans
are quite young 200 million years maximum but the the continents up to four point five
billion years old and in order to understand how the earth
everything came about we we have to look into this the well into this deep Boyd crust and this is
why we choose this place here we need indirect
up and direct place observation and this is
all a grill in a very few places scientist can get
to engine rocks without the aid of special equipment in the Beartooth Mountains of Montana
the rocks are right at the surface I’ll hearing impaired his we have some
illness rocks in the world we have remnants approx formed as old as
four billion years ago in these are mixed with somewhat younger
rocks im magnetic origin than ever range in ages
about 2.8 to 2.75 billion years many of these ancient rocks are made of
granite granite contains the radioactive elements uranium which decays tulip this allows it to be dated with the
machine called a mass spectrometer by measuring these elements in rocks
from the bear tooth scientists confirm that they were among
the oldest known rocks on earth I’ll the rocks in the bear tooth for
four billion years old but the earth is 4.5 billion years I V why is the first half billion years at
the group’s history missing from the rock record I’ll there’s a dynamic planet and we have competing processes in the form plate tectonics driving the rock cycle
and we can processes at the surface and your the
hydrologic cycle and those two cycles conspire to wipe
out the early history of the Earth and so it’s very rare to actually find
pieces rock that are actually Soham the beer to serb parliament agent
builder moms that includes the Grand Teton ranch in Wyoming studies on the rocks in these old
Rangers revealed that the face of the earth has changed dramatically over time this is key evidence in support of
geology is most important theory plate tectonics plate tectonics theory holds that the
earth’s crust is broken into huge slabs called plates the face of the earth changes because
the plates flowed like raps on semi molten rocks below the force that moves the plates is he’d
which emanates from the very heart of the earth ultimately the energy that goes into
driving the plates around is derived from the interior the
earth and it’s just a result other radioactive
decay the initial initial elements that were
involved in the formation and the nasa became the earth to understand how he drives the plates
scientist simulate the extreme conditions that exist at the center of
the earth where temperatures reached seven
thousand degrees Fahrenheit connected the achieve these conditions
with the help of tiny bits of Diamyd we can recreate conditions in the
Earth’s core by using a diamond anvil cell we can actually squeeze materials
between the tips have to dine angles and we can achieve pressures on the
order of three or four million times the pressure at the earth’s surface we can also achieve high temperatures in
the diamond anvil cell by heating with an infrared laser in because they want to leave here
scientists have learned that intense heat from the earth’s core and mantle rises up toward the crust this causes
the metal to circulate along the bottom of the crust it is this circulation but moves
continents around and profoundly changes their shape and
size heat circulating deep in the earth can
cause the cross to pull apart all rift they’ll in North America a rift SX the homeland
at the native problem people in New Mexico the global people who lived in the Rio
Grande rift zone for thousands of years they have retained beach in traditions
and many still live in communities called problems the Rio Grande rift is named after the
great Rio Grande River which cuts a deep gorge down the middle
of the rift zone the river follows a broad valley in the Rift which is
flanked on both sides by lofty mountain ranges this topography is common in rift zones as the earth’s crust poles apart it
stretches and becomes thinner magma swells up from a mental below causing the cross to bowl choppered and
break apart broken crossed all blocks rise fall and tilt sideways creating valleys
and mountains at the surface what on the cross poles apart for
millions of years belizean Rangers stretched to the
horizon this is the case in the Basin and Range
province of North America after spreading apart for $17 million
years sections at the Basin and Range grown wider by one hundred percent the
Basin and Range bans drying desert country but the
spreading bulging crossed has been worked up so high that it invites no during the winter most valleys in the basement Range
Province are in close by mountains rain and melted snow drain into these
quotations inform lakes like Mona lake in California the on the shores of Mono Lake stand on rock
formations called to for towers tutors are made of
counseling deposited by underwater Springs the
towers were one summer but siphoning of lake water for human
use has left the two firs high and dry the presence of calcium rich brings
reveals another feature of crustal spreading volcanic activity when there’s rifting there’s typically a break in the crest
at the crest itself has broken apart and prior to breaking apart it stretches
then stands and so as multi materials make
their way up it’s very easy for him to get through
the crust and as they come through the crust we
see them as well K Nelson in the past member volcanic eruptions have blanketed the
rift zones of North America with the players have lava and ash now hardened to colourful rock book and a crock was a building material
for the engine problem people at the Rio Grande grid in some places clips a volcanic rock
form the back wall of dwellings a volcanic rock called carports often of the cave dwellers
could carve into it with simple hand tools if crustal spreading persist it can split a comment in half ocean waters move in this happened in
Africa where the famous African Rift opened a
gap between the compliment and Saudi Arabia the Red Sea was born in North America the Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range
Province may or may not progressed to the ocean stage but the crust is spreading apart today creating a lively rugged landscape one
of the liveliest places associated with crustal spreading lies just north of the
basement range problems at a place called yellowstone but Yellowstone National Park is world
famous for its bizarre volcanic landscape on there are no active volcanoes here
today but pastor options are among the largest ever produced on earth below yellowstone a column apart magma rises from the
metal to within a few miles above the Earth’s surface the subterranean magma fuels hundreds of
geysers in the park up thousands of other thermal features
are found here in fact yellowstone park contains the
greatest concentration of magma driven features in the world at any time Magnum a once again rise to
the surface at yellowstone geysers will be replaced by volcanoes
and memnoch the russians have lava and ash pastor options at yellowstone have
thickened the group crossed with thousands of feet a volcanic ash in
blood the entire dept at the colorful Yellowstone River Canyon has made a
volcanic rocks where lava flows pile up in the canyon the river cascades 102 feet over
waterfalls yellowstone dramatically shows all
Balkan -ism thickens the car metal cross to the surface recently geologist to discover the
Bakken -ism also thickens the crushed in a different way from the bottom down up some well this is the CMO ball canning field a
part of the Basin and Range Province in California’s Mojave Desert I’ll I’ll here geologist comb the flights have
seen as dormant volcanoes looking for special rocks called
Zealand’s I’ll very special localities like the cement
volcanic field have great permanent journalists tens of thousands so very important
localities you try to piece together what happened
a firm and lower crust I’ll words and laugh the roots in the words analyst the
indicate foreign rock fragments and the remains for and &
Lifshitz rock the SIR rocks that do not belong to the to the lab for that
brought them to the surface single its were once part of the bottom
of the earth’s crust and even part of the metal they formed
the deep inter-lining a volcanic condoms on volcanoes come to life rising magma
rips chunks of rock from aligning and carries
them to the surface when you see the law at the circus you’ll notice different looking rocks
and maybe white little white and black rocks
that come from deep in crest or those fascinating little green beauties little granular green clusters
which are pieces in the mantle Z looks are important because they give
us a direct look at the bottom side of the com- with the help of machines like the
electron microprobe single its reveal a fascinating new
picture at the bottom of the earth’s crust home the traditional series called the crust ends abruptly were and meets
the denser rocks at the mantle Disney sharp boundaries nickname the mobile and but seen a live show that the model was
a bit messier involved Canuck regions but magma from the metal often rises to the
bottom of the Cross but then goes no further the mobile is obscured scientists
recently learned that this was the start of an important process of crustal
thickening called underplaying underplaying us a
process by which magma that’s generated in the arse
mantle is and into the earth’s crust but at the base of the crust normally we
think I’ve magma as rising on way through the crust and coming out at the surface and
volcanoes but when underplaying and sediment making it
all the way to the surface actually stops and ponds right at the
base of the crust work contact the upper mantle eventually the magma from the metal hardens to rock
and becomes new continental crust in this way under plating makes the
crust grow thicker from the bottom down it turns out that under plating is added
new cross to the bottom apartment all over the place here in the Alps have
northern Italy geologists can actually see where this
happen billions of years ago this is the you bring your bottles of a
rug place where geologist must also be expert rock climbs be a bruise on his near the boundary
where to crustal plates me the European and African plains in millions have years ago Italy a part of the African Plate was an
island in the ancient Mediterranean Sea the African Plate then move north
causing italy did dock with the carton of of in during the collision rocks in the ancient sea floor had
nowhere to go but up now rise more than 12,000 feet above sea
level don’t mind Ranger northern Italy geologist once thought that the entire
thickness of the Cross grows out of the ground here exposing the mall the Ab Ripper panels
on was a place with the mall could be /c the ball was thought to be
so shop online that one could put a finger on it appeared that crushed rocks were on
one side mantle rocks on the other but the more
geologist study the area the less that’s the reason true your so malval including he began to look as though all the rocks
here were crustal rocks perhaps this was one of those places
where metal rocks have been transformed in the crustal rocks by underplaying to find out for sure geologist took
hundreds rock samples back to the lab for analysis okay man I think we’re ready for the
pressure vessel her in lab experiments the Umbria rocks were subjected to the
extreme conditions that exist at the bottom of the earth’s crust temperatures down their reach 1200
degrees Fahrenheit and pressures are 10,000 times greater that the serbs yep best with you these experiments confirm
that underplaying did indeed take place at the Ab Ripper
bottles own scientists have also learned that under pleading and other processes
happening in the lower crust can have major effects at the earth’s
surface but we know that there’s lots of things that go on down the lower crust that the earth
and many of these things have a profound influence on us as humans and surface at their rocks
and minerals change when when they’re subjected to
heat and pressure rocks can melt the minerals in the rocks
can in I change themselves into into dancer
minerals and so the rocks themselves become heavier and all these things manifest themselves
on the surface of the yr rocks melting give rise to magnitude
replicated in explosive volcanism minerals and rocks can dehydrate giving rise to water and co2 which are implicated in formation gold and
silver copper deposits all of these processes which have their origins deep
in the crust have manifest themselves on the surface
of the earth in ways that are very important to our survival as human
beings or to the longevity of our civilizations in the San Francisco Bay Area the crust
mantle boundary plays a ruled in a destructive scenario of all the Loma Prieta earthquake up 1989 damage was heavy in and around San
Francisco but the quakes at the center was more than sixty miles
away in between relatively minor damage occurred up it turns out that loose soils were a
factor in the severity of ground shaking in San Francisco but scientists think there may have been
another factor some seismic waves generated during the
quake went down struck the Mojo at an angle
and then bounced back under sent Francisco apparently these bouncing waves were
more destructive than waves traveling straight through the earth’s crust a large quake is predicted to strike the
heavily populated east side of San Francisco Bay which
lies above the Hayward Fault because so many people are at risk earthquake scientist conducted an
experiment to predict what might happen when that quick finally strikes from the
1989 Loma Prieta earthquake we noticed that indeed
seismic energy does go down strike mojo and come back and
any them system we wanted to see here in the East
Bay along the Hayward Fault if a similar type none would occur and that since we can’t wait for the
next earthquake one other thing so there’s one out
generated around we but explosive sources in high
probability areas areas we know are very likely to generate a
large earthquake in the near future and we wanted to see how the energy with
travel from those locations to North in
Berkeley Oakland and at the populated areas and
also to the south and the San Jose area 7 6 for for 3 to 1 from the sunday with people would have a
a large earthquake sign energy from that earthquake with travel
down strike the Mojo and surface underneath
the Oakland Berkeley area I’m and from our indications this then shaking would be very intense much
more so then was observed from the 1989 Loma
Prieta earthquake coming on the San Francisco up to scientist earthquakes are a source
of valuable information when a big quake occurs anywhere on
Earth scientist get a glimpse at the entire inner structure of the planet but most
of what we know about the Earth’s deep interior has been
derived from studies a birth weights summer the deeper search quakes occur
quite deep 700 kilometers deep and waves just like throwing a rock into
a pond water they the earthquakes release energy create
waves these ways travel all the way through the year through the
center the earth their recording on the other side of the world and by studying these waves have
traveled this is the job the seismologists turning them around the
world we’ve learned that the interior this layered it’s not just one single
homogeneous mass but its comprise a player’s at different compositions am in while earthquake reveal a rough picture of the
planet’s interior scientists often need more detailed information about the
earth’s crust one other methods of getting it is
through aeromagnetic surveys up the instruments in the
specially-designed plane detects the magnetic fields in crustal rocks cautions decade reviews ok many rocks in the cross contain magnetic
minerals such as magnet to by analyzing the magnetic variation to
these rocks scientists can detect unseen geologic
features very deep in the Earth’s crust them the plane flies low and slow over the
terrain to collect data and I’m recently an aeromagnetic survey was flown over
North America’s west coast the objective to explore the differences
between continental and oceanic crust as flight lines have data are pieced
together on a map an incredibly complex picture of the
earth’s crust on full slow yet there is no heed to this complexity
in the subdued to rain around Seattle Washington a major West Coast City it is only through magnetic surveys and other geologic studies that the
startling subterranean seen beneath the west coast Israel the to crustal plates overlap each other below Seattle one
plate makes up the ocean floor and where it meets the continent it
bends and dives underneath it this is called a subduction zone sometimes the two plates lurched toward
each other unleashing the tremendous job at the surface on on it on Good Friday 1964 on North America’s strongest quake on
record struck near Anchorage Alaska leveling the seaside city so tremendous
was the shock but it was felt in Florida some 5,000 miles away the Alaska quake
was a subduction zone earthquake we need the mountainous terrain around
Anchorage the group is restless here the pacific ocean floor subducting
below the calm the most powerful earthquakes on her
third triggered by subduction of the earth’s crust a subduction zone runs along North
America’s west coast from alaska along the coast of Canada
all the way to keep them in the scene when California subduction scopes a beautiful rugged
coastline when it occurs at the Commons age this is because over time the subducting
plate grinds forcefully on the plate above as it slides underneath the top
leadership upward in response of mountain ranges are built along the
coast like the Olympic range in washington after millions of years the subducting
plate sinks deep into the hot metal where it begins to melt magma forms and
sometimes rises through ruptures in the plant a bomb this creates another powerful force
caused by subduction but on Saint Helens in washington erupted meet
you 1980 subduction triggered the eruption which
devastated the landscape for miles in all directions I’m I’m a dense forest was blown over by
the blast and buried under pick players a volcanic
ash mount saint helens is one of many powerful volcanoes that were built by
subduction along North America’s west coast majestic Mount Rainier stands 50 miles
from Seattle up Mark Baker Washington rises near the
us-canadian border to the South crater lake an organ was a
huge volcanic peak before an eruption blew its top of seven thousand years ago way many times in the geologic past these
volcanoes have erupted far more powerfully than mount saint helens as long as subduction drives the crustal plates below be
sleeping giants will surely awaken again and again the granite domes the assembly National
Park in California mimic the shape of the volcanic peaks in
the pacific northwest subduction created both but the domes
abusive a deformed in a different way granite is a rock that owes its
existence to subduction it forms when a subducting plate melts
and magma rises up through the overlying plight but the magma often fails to make
it to the surface and a volcanic eruption instead it cools and hardens deep within
the crust forming granite this is called a granite batholith well this is the process that form your
seventies granted we see these rocks today because a roach
in strip thousands of feet of birth of the top of the Sierra Nevada
batholith another granite batholith was exposed by
erosion in the state a vital but geologist working in the area were
puzzled to find rocks that were formed by subduction subduction generally occurs at the Educomp but these rocks are 350 miles
away from the nearest coastline to the west how to the end up so far inland clues came from the rugged hell’s canyon
area just to the west to be Idaho batholith on the banks of the Snake River geologist found huge piles a volcanic
rocks called pillow lavas these rocks formed where molten lava
poured into the ocean but pillow lavas are forming today on the
Island of Hawaii lover is arriving from a small tent on
the volcano killer whale from this fiery cauldron mall thinkers
have lava flowing underground tunnels to the Pacific Ocean shoreline world underwater the lava seems to be fighting
to stay mold but it cools quickly hardening into pillow shape rock way well well when they found the same kinds rocks and
hell’s canyon geologist at a problem a crucial ingredient in the rocks
formation the ocean was missing these rock scene wildly out
of place 1 for their work in Hells Canyon you would
more rocks that had formed in the ocean these rocks are really rich in the maybe a possible there thing on that one
here’s another one fossil so creatures that live on
tropical coral reefs were found alongside the volcanic rocks measure coral reefs only formed near the equator
but hells canyon is thousands of miles north at the acquitted geologist for now certain that the rocks
and hell’s canyon were formed in a far-off exotic location at that time the landscape look much different than
it does now in fact we think that there were probably chains or chains islands out in the North
asian-pacific we don’t even know exactly where they
were but so different than what we see today in
Hells Canyon and you can probably think about a a stringer violins maybe 20 or 30 a.m.
out in the ocean maybe for several hundred miles some of
which had bought enough once in a while Gold Box deals with iraq
and when they erupted the more power on through things in the air probably 8 10 twenty miles on funny blot out the
Sun for a while they were so explosive but the debris that we see from those
volcanoes are mostly what I’ve been happy on in Hells Canyon for the injured hell’s
canyon islands to move from the tropics all the way to their present location in
ido there must have been profound movements of the earth’s crust or plates and about $130 million years ago the west
coast of North America was located in western Idaho and the volcanic islands of Hells Canyon
we’re a group of islands offshore the mainland a subduction zone
existed along the coast as the ocean played subducted below the
comment the injured islands which were attached to the moving plate moved closer and closer to the coast the finally the island’s collided with the
compound when the island’s joined the common it
took a long time it may have taken a hundred million
years for the process to occur a small and if we live
we wouldn’t even know is occurring and even during the time the dinosaurs
probably about as long as the dinosaurs lived is how long it took for these islands to joined to North
America the subduction has been active ever since
bringing in more islands and parts of the sea floor the the west coast North America grew larger bit by bit
these new pieces of continental crust recalled exotic touring well in alaska at the edge of the original
Continental landmasses sits mountain Ali North America’s
highest null to the south and west all the land is
exotic added to the comment by subduction it anchorage is built on the Chugach
stirring a beautiful exotic land that was once part of the ocean floor farther south along the Canadian girls a
huge island will become a new exotic terrain of North America subduction is pushing Vancouver Island
closer and closer to the mainland and eventually they will collide
Vancouver Island might be renamed the Vancouver peninsula my scientists now believe that much of
western North America is exotic in general most herbal and west to the
American and Canadian Rocky Mountains is made a big Xotic continental crust
the rockies themselves were created when subduction first began millions of years ago at
that time the comment ended here and it had a relatively flat coastline
but when the oceanic plate began to dive below the comment coastal lands were shocked upward to
create this majestic range of Martin’s ok western North America is perhaps the
world’s best example of a common pieced together by tectonic forces
subduction rifting and under plating all played a
part in this drama love Continental group the and wat tectonic forces create the
continental crust where the cross shows itself for the service a difference in a forces around the
world scolding carving and even destroying this
tectonic handiwork what these are the fortunes overruled the boulders erosional artist is water it works on
the cross to the former waterfalls rivers and rainy wanna be Europe’s most dramatic water
sculpted to rains is found in the southwestern United States and good head this is Bryce Canyon in southern Utah it is part of the Colorado Plateau a
great blog the earth’s crust that was parched
upward by plate tectonic forces and water carve this very Lansing in the
soft Red Rocks albright’s in some areas of the Colorado Plateau running water cuts deep canyons through
solids and stop at Canyon de chez geology students get a
powerful lesson in the processes have Canyon formation this land here was all horizontal but their streams running
through it and there is cholera uplift the Colorado
Plateau and when this up what is happening this
year is still running through creating this came to say so we can do so here today in Mystic quite on time million two years in as students explore the geology of
Canyon the Shi’a they discover something unusual in the
cliffs above up centuries ago Native American people
built their dwellings in the knock some sense dawn clips marched caves a carved out by the
combined forces of surface water and groundwater 0 well well and and and cool the grandparent all canyons is the
Grand Canyon in Arizona cool it is almost too much to believe that
this mile-deep spectacle was sculpted by water but in geologic time the years are many the Colorado River
has worked with al rest through the ages some well when water freezes to Weis another
powerful larosa forces created glaciers got the earth’s surface with a
stronger hand and flowing water well well well well up I’ll glaciers covered vast parts of the
earth during the ice ages which ended about 10,000 years ago up when they retreated they left the
distinctive mark on the landscape well I’ll know where is the signature %uh
glaciers so striking as a new assembly National Park Yosemite Valley gets its movie you shape profile from the action of glaciers up you thousands of years ago glacier filled the entire valley up eventually the glacier retreated
revealing the bold and the workers movie nights well up up when the glaciers retreated from
Yosemite at the close of the last ice age their melting ice field deep pockets on
the ground to form beautiful alpine lakes good the clips mirrored in their waters seem
as permanent as the sky above but that was just an illusion for this gentle substance called water
will reduce these rocky cathedrals to nothing and flatness is the goal erosion 0 were plate tectonic forces to suddenly
stop building mountains water erosion would reduce the land to a
level playing 0 only sand dunes rise above the plane’s piled up by the blowing winds and there is another force that is greatly
modifying the earth’s surface the group human population is increasing at alarming rates and
within are huge appetite for resources from the group crossed are we damaging the cross beyond repair if you if we damage the crust there are
lotsa back to geologic processes that can undo the damage I think the critical
issue is are we extracting resources from the
crust sustainable rate the answer to that is of course is no we’re not we’re extracting
resources at a much greater rate than they can possibly be replenished and this gets back to the
issue love love the geologic versus human time
scales we perceive the earth is being here forever as on human timescale
and yet the geologic processes that are required to replenish resources that were using a very rapid a
rare very rapid pace a require millions and millions and
millions of years so we are in fact damaging the crust of
the earth and in ways that it relates to the
sustainability of our civilizations and and us as a humankind world you may very well deplete the resources
that the crust is provided we may even abuse the earth’s crust in
ways that lead to our own extinction on on but the process is that regenerate
the crust originate many miles below the surface
it is unlikely that humans will be able to influence those processes the the good plate tectonics will carry on I new continental crust will be created at
subduction zone offshore islands will be welded on two
continents to become exotic terrain comments will be split and stretch wider
along with so Europe will live on forever changing the
expressive features a bit rocky face me well good well all good bring said bring good day thing

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